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Home Stamps France Viaur Viaduct Philatelic Documents - Collectibles click to enlarge. Add to basket Close. Issue Date: About Viaur Viaduct Philatelic Documents. France - Recommended stamp issues.

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Experience Nature - Reptiles and Amphibians Issued: Europa Bridges Issued: Birds Issued: Europa - Bridges Issued: Science - Biomedical Research in Spain Issued: Estonian Defence League Years Issued: Other stamp issues in Rooftops of Paris. French Collection - Quarter 4. Annual Collection of Stamps She taught herself to read at the same time as her daughters, and then saved for newspapers and read them cover to cover. Lucie was the only child in her school who had a dictionary.

The teacher was sniffy: "Hasn't your mother got better things to spend her money on than that? Her own mother had married at fifteen and had fourteen children; one of her sisters had married at the same age and died giving birth to her third child when she was still a teenager. Louise was lucky that she conceived no more children after Lucie and Jeanne. So was Lucie, for care of a string of younger siblings would have hobbled her before she had taken her first steps toward independence.

If Louise's early ambitions for herself had been thwarted, she was determined that her two bright little girls would go where she had not. She had decided that they would become either primary-school teachers institutrices in French or "post office ladies," for these were two of the few ways in which working-class girls could move a step up the social ladder. In , both Lucie and Jeanne were made "Pupilles de la Nation," a status accorded the children of certain war veterans and one which brought a little extra money into the family. Instead, they scraped together the money for her to study for the entrance examination to a primary-school teacher training college.

So determined were they to give Lucie the best possible start to her teaching career that in they arranged for her to study for the entrance examination not to the local training college near Montceau-les-Mines, a provincial second best, but to the Parisian establishment in the boulevard des Batignolles.

Sacrificing the hard-won independence of their little market garden, the Bernards crossed Burgundy to settle in Vitry-sur-Seine, among the drab outer suburbs of the capital, where Louis found another gardening job and Louise went back to work in a factory. For a year, seventeen-year-old Lucie prepared for her entrance examination.

Her sister, Jeanne, left school and got work in the post office, and the whole family supported the star daughter. But in , Lucie failed her examination for the college in the boulevard des Batignolles and was rejected. The disappointment must have been severe, but the Bernards persevered.

Lucie prepared for the examination of — and again, failed. And again, they rallied and supported her through a third attempt. At last she succeeded and was offered a place to train in the intake. It was a moment of pride and celebration. Lucie's future as an institutrice seemed safe, and with it the entire family was lifted from insecurity and the parents had some expectation of easier times to come — at which point, Lucie changed her mind and refused to take up her place.

Many years later, looking back to the wartime record that made her famous, Lucie would say that for her "resistance was primarily refusal. Refusal has been a principle all my life. Liberty, she said frequently, was directly linked to the same cherished principle of refusal, and refusal was linked to disobedience. Throughout her life she took it as a point of honor that if she felt like it she would break engagements — even failing to turn up for lessons, later on, when she was teaching — justifying this as being her own right to liberty.

In , liberty meant chasing her own dreams, not her mother's dreams for her. Going against her parents' wishes might provoke a family drama, but that would pass.


  1. [email protected] : comptes-rendus : Laurent Douzou, Lucie Aubrac;
  2. La résistance expliquée à mes petits-enfants (eBook, ) [pienupernupe.gq]!
  3. Freie Hand: Roman (German Edition).
  4. Primary Sources?

A whole lifetime of teaching infants and supporting her family, on the other hand, was simply too high a price to pay to please her parents. Nevertheless their retirement, as she realized many years later, perhaps more sympathetic to her parents' point of view than she had been as a nineteen-year-old, "went up in smoke.

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Lucie had decided that the constraints of becoming, and being, mademoiselle la maitresse were too great. She wanted more than her mother's vision for her: the years of studying and exam-taking had made what Louise saw as a bold advancement seem too timid a step to her daughter.

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It was a huge ambition. In , aged nineteen, Lucie Bernard embarked on the adventure of living alone in a great city. She had set herself a daunting task. At the same time she had to earn her keep, for even if her family continued to house and feed her on and off for several years, she had tuition and examination fees to pay, and rent on a series of rooms in the Latin Quarter, which allowed her to live some of the time in the freedom she craved.

She began applying for temporary jobs at primary schools, bending the details to present her situation in the most sympathetic light. Her failure to take up the training course offered in the boulevard des Batignolles had been, she explained to prospective employers, due to her mother's bad health. And while both working and studying, she also launched herself into political activism and a social life that might on their own have absorbed the energies of a less driven woman. In December , she married Raymond Samuel, a young engineer who was also a committed communist.

After the defeat of France in , Lucie resumed teaching at a school in the unoccupied zone in Lyon. That autumn, she met in a cafe Emmanuel d'Astier de la Vigerie, one of those hoping to organise resistance to the German occupation. It was out of such chance encounters that the first resistance groups were formed.

There were many women involved in resistance, but relatively few in such prominent positions. This alone would have marked Lucie out as an exceptional individual. For the first two years of the war, she and Raymond continued their professional occupations - she as a teacher, he as an engineer - while also living double lives as resistance organisers under various pseudonyms.

Resistance Voices: the Case of Lucie Aubrac

After the war, they officially adopted as their new name Raymond's resistance alias, "Aubrac". In May Lucie gave birth to her first child, Jean-Pierre. So she was living a triple existence as teacher, mother and resister; as she wrote in her memoirs, being the mother of a baby was an excellent cover to divert suspicion from the Germans, and at one meeting between her husband and General de Gaulle's envoy, Jean Moulin, in a Lyon public garden, her presence with her baby boy proved particularly useful.

At the end of , the Germans occupied the whole of France and Lyon became the headquarters of the notorious Gestapo chief, Klaus Barbie.

Lucie Aubrac: The French Resistance Heroine Who Outwitted the Gestapo by Siân Rees

In March Raymond was arrested. It seems, however, that the Germans and Vichy authorities thought they had only caught a small-time black marketeer, and he was released in May, after Lucie intervened with the local Vichy public prosecutor. Then, on June 21 , Raymond was arrested again, along with Moulin himself, at a top level meeting of resisters in a doctor's surgery in the Lyon district of Caluire. It did not take the Germans long to work out the identities of Moulin and most of the others they had captured.

Moulin was horribly tortured and transferred to Paris, where he died. Meanwhile, Raymond was held in the Montluc prison, in Lyon, and beaten up.

France Mourns Nazi Resistance Hero Raymond Aubrac